Botswana is a mining economy.   About 40% of GDP comes from export of minerals, mainly diamonds.  This has however reduced to 25% in recent years because of fall in demand for diamonds and base metals.  89% of exports are from pearls, precious stones, metals and coins (    Damtshaa, Lerala, Jwaneng, Orapa, Letlhakane and Karowe are diamond mines, although expansion plans have been currently halted due to Covid 19.  Morupule has coal mine.  Export earnings from diamonds is close to USD 4 billion in 2020. 

Debswana is the diamond mining company and it is a joint venture between Botswana Government and Anglo American.  Karowe Mine operations are part of Canadian investment.  Botswana Power Corporation is currently working on PPPs (Public Private Partnerships) to produce power through exploiting coal reserves, while investing in solar farms as well.  There are about 10 diamond polishing companies from India and Israel holding site holder licences employing over 3000 people.   Most polishers are foreign-owned and large family or privatley owned businesses.

Soda Ash mines salt from Makgadikgadi Pans.  Clay bricks form part of mining operations according to laws of Botswana.  Iron Ore deposits have been fund in Botswana and extraction of ore for export purposes is at commissioning stage.