Development of “green technologies” is one of the main trends in Europe and Poland is not an exception in this regard. We observe a noticeable increase in expenditure on innovative, eco-friendly solutions, including e-mobility in Poland. Projects covering the EV market, the zero-emission public transport sector as well as the charging infrastructure network has received support within various programs launched by the Polish government. Poland is the leader in the CEE region in terms of the development of e-mobility on-demand services. The estimated total value of programs related to e-mobility may amount to as much as EUR 4,2 billion in the next ten years.
In the foreseeable future a considerable development of the electric vehicles fleet is expected in Poland. Based on the “Polish EV Outlook 2020” report prepared by the Polish Alternative Fuels Association (PSPA) in a realistic scenario, assuming the introduction of incentives or, alternatively, the possibility of deducting 100% VAT on the purchase and use of electric vehicles, the size of the BEV fleet in 2025 will be about 280,000 units.
Polish e-mobility market
In the first half of 2020 the registration number of cars with alternative drives amounted to 26.9 thousand and was higher by 12.7% in comparison to H1 2019. The largest increase, by 210.7% y/y, was recorded by plug-In hybrid cars. Growths were also registered by hybrid (+28.7%) and electric (+19.6%) vehicles, while the number of newly registered LPG/CNG/LNG cars fell by 63.7%.
According to the “E-mobility Index” maintained by the Polish Automotive Industry Association (PZPM) and the Polish Alternative Fuels Association (PSPA), at the end of May 2020 the fleet of electric trucks and vans amounted to 593 units, while electric buses – 260 units. In turn, the fleet of electric mopeds and motorcycles reached 6,964 units.
Driving forces of the Polish e-mobility market:
investments made by car-sharing service operator like
- the fleet of Traficar includes over 200 electric cars
projects implemented by local government entities
- Krakowski Holding Komunalny S.A., which awarded the contract for the long-term rental of 47 electric cars)
- based on a survey conducted in 62 Polish cities by PSPA, 87 local governments confirmed the development of the fleet of electric cars used for the implementation of public tasks. 40 percent of respondents declared to build such a fleet within one year and 47 percent over the next three years.
- In 2020, the segment of new electric buses in Poland recorded as many as 200 new registrations and thus we exceeded the level of 400 electric buses in our country
- in 2019 Warsaw announced results of one of the largest tenders for electric buses in Europe - 130 units
- in Jaworzno, as early as in 2021, electric vehicles will make up 80% of the urban fleet;
- according to PZPM’s data, prepared on the basis of the Central Register of Vehicles (CEP) the number of electric buses on Polish roads in 2016-2020 increased almost nine-fold (from about 30 vehicles registered at the end of 2015)
Act on Electromobility and Alternative Fuels
Statutory incentives for purchasing zero-emission vehicles:
- Exemption from excise duty
- Tax privileges for electric vehicle users – PIT/CIT
- Possibility of electric vehicles using bus lanes
- Possibility of parking EVs free-of-charge in paid zones in city centres
- Unlimited entry of electric vehicles to Clean Transport Zones
- Exemption of zero-emission buses from tolls on national roads
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The potential of the Polish EV market
E-BUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES:
Solaris – Bolechowo
Volvo Buses – Wrocław
MAN Bus – Starachowice
Rafako – Racibórz
CELLS, LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES AND BATTERY COMPONENTS FACILITIES:
LG Chem – Biskupice Podgórne
Northvolt – Gdansk
Daimler – Jawor
BMZ – Gliwice
Umicore – Nysa
Guotai Huarong – Godzikowice
LS Cable & Systems – Dzierzoniów
Impact Clean Power Technology – Warsaw
Johnson Matthey – Konin
Capchem – Godzikowice
PCC Rokita i Shida – Brzeg Dolny
SK Innovation – Dabrowa Górnicza
EV CHARGING STATIONS PRODUCTION FACILITES:
Garo Polska – Szczecin
Ekoenergetyka-Polska – Nowy Kisielin
Enelion – Gdansk
PRE Edward Biel – Piekary
Kolejowe Zakłady Łacznosci – Bydgoszcz
ABB – Cracow, Tczew
EV POWERTRAIN COMPONENT PRODUCTION FACILITIES:
MEDCOM – Warsaw
EV’S MADE IN POLAND:
Volkswagen Poznan – Wrzesnia
Triggo – Warsaw
Melex – Mielec
At the end of May 2020, there were 1,173 publicly accessible electric vehicle charging stations in Poland (2,208 points). 33% of them were fast DC charging stations, and 67% slow AC chargers of 22 kW or less. The cities with the most publicly available EV charging stations include:
- Warsaw (147),
- Katowice (74),
- Kraków (54),
- Gdańsk (51),
- Wrocław (51),
- Poznań (38),
- Opole (22),
- Szczecin (19),
- Łódź (18),
- Rzeszów (15),
- Gdynia (15),
- Olsztyn (13),
- Kielce (11),
- Lublin (10).
The largest national charging infrastructure operators are GreenWay Polska, PKN Orlen, Magenta Grupa Tauron, PGE Nowa Energia and Energa.
For one charging point installed in a publicly available station in Poland there are slightly more than 5.2 electric cars, which is a satisfactory result compared to many EU Member States, being, however, primarily the result of a relatively small EV fleet. According to “Polish EV Outlook 2020”, the number of charging points installed in publicly available stations should be at least 40,200 in 2025 and almost 100,000 in 2030.
Market support – Poland
In 2020 the Ministry of Climate and the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management launched three e-mobility programs with the total budget of PLN 150 million (EUR 32,6 million).
“Green car - incentives for the purchase of an electric passenger car (M1)”
The budget of this program was PLN 37.5 million (EUR 8,16 million) and it was supposed to incentivize the purchase of a battery electric brand new passenger car of the M1 category. The maximum amount of the incentive was PLN 18,750 (EUR 4079) or up to 15% of eligible costs. The upper price limit of vehicles covered by the support has been set at PLN 125,000 (EUR 27,200).
“Hummingbird –a taxi good for the climate – pilot program”
The amount of funds reserved for this program was PLN 40 million (EUR 8,7 million). The instrument was dedicated to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises licensed to transport people in road transport. The support included the purchase or leasing of new electric vehicles (BEV) of M1 category and the purchase or installation of a charging point up to 22 kW. The support was granted in the form of incentives (up to 20% of eligible costs, not more than PLN 25,000 EUR 5440) or loans (up to 100% of eligible costs).
“eVAN–support for the purchase of an electric van (N1)”
In addition to the purchase or leasing of battery electric N1 delivery vehicles, this instrument also provided incentives for the purchase of a 22 kW charging point. The budget of the program was set at PLN 70 million (EUR 15,2 million). The incentive for purchasing or leasing an electric van was a maximum of 30% of eligible costs, but no more than PLN 70,000 (EUR 15,200).