As transfer pricing increasingly becomes a key focus for tax authorities globally, multinational corporations (MNCs) and international businesses would need to consider making transfer pricing adjustments before year-end closing to adhere to the arm’s length principle for related party transactions. When doing so, it is necessary to consider the impact on financial and tax reporting, which this article seeks to highlight with practical recommendations highlighting the importance of maintaining consistency between the two.


Understanding Transfer Pricing Adjustments


Transfer pricing adjustments involve revising the transfer prices of related party transactions to be in accordance with the arm's length principle. This means ensuring that transactions between related entities will be under the same terms and conditions as transactions between independent parties.


According to the Singapore Transfer Pricing Guidelines (Sixth edition) (STPG), taxpayers may make the following transfer pricing adjustments in their tax returns or after the filing of their tax returns:  
(a) Year-end adjustments at year-end closing of accounts;  
(b) Compensating adjustments;  
(c) Corresponding adjustments arising from transfer pricing adjustments by tax authorities; or  
(d) Self-initiated retrospective adjustments  

The Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore’s (“IRAS’”) position (at a glance) on the 4 types of TP adjustments is summarised as follows: 


Table showing the summary of the 4 types of TP adjustments in Adjustments made at/for, Situation in which adjustments are made and Tax Positions.


Robust documentation supporting the adjustments is crucial to substantiate the arm's length nature of the revised transfer prices and prevent potential disputes with the tax authorities. 

The Impact on Financial Statements

Transfer pricing adjustments may significantly impact various items in a company’s financial statements, including revenue, expenses, assets, and liabilities. Adjustments to transfer prices may impact reported sales revenue, cost of goods sold, operating expenses, and the profitability of entities involved in related party transactions. Typically, these adjustments are made during the year-end closing process to ensure a true and fair view of the company's financial performance and position.


The Implications for Tax Reporting


With the current increased focus on transfer pricing, the tax authorities will likely scrutinize related party transactions to ensure compliance with the arm's length principle and prevent profit shifting between related parties. 

Any transfer pricing adjustments will have implications on  tax reporting. If these adjustments lead to increased income recognition, they will result in higher tax liabilities for a company. Conversely, transfer pricing adjustments resulting in increased expenses will reduce tax liabilities. Importantly, any transfer pricing adjustments made by the IRAS, may also result in penalties being imposed. 

The determination of transfer pricing adjustments must always be based on:  
1) the nature of the adjustment; and  
2) the applicable transfer pricing laws and guidelines in a relevant jurisdiction.


Transfer pricing adjustments could also trigger corresponding Goods and Services Tax (GST) adjustments to the initial supply value of goods/services (excluding out-of-scope supply) or the initial value of the imported goods/services between related parties. It is, therefore, essential for GST registered businesses to evaluate the GST impact of their transfer pricing adjustments on their GST reporting position on a periodic basis. 


Practical Guidance for Managing Transfer Pricing Adjustments

To effectively manage transfer pricing adjustments, it is advisable to seek guidance from transfer pricing specialists who are familiar with the relevant transfer pricing regulations in your jurisdiction. Here are some practical recommendations: 

• Maintain Robust Documentation: Prepare comprehensive and contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation. This documentation serves as supporting evidence to substantiate the arm's length nature of the relevant related party transactions, thus reducing the risk of transfer pricing disputes and demonstrating a clear record of compliance with the IRAS.


• Coordinate between Accounting and Tax division personnel: Ensure coordination and reconciliation between the accounting and tax division personnel within the organisation. This helps maintain consistency between transfer pricing adjustments made in the financial statements and tax reporting, thus reducing the risk of audits or challenges from tax authorities on such matters. 

• Stay Informed and Seek Professional Advice: Stay updated on developments in the relevant transfer pricing regulations, guidelines, and industry practices. Where required, seek professional guidance/advice from transfer pricing experts in order to navigate the complexities on transfer pricing matters (including making appropriate transfer pricing adjustments) and ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements.


Given the greater focus from the IRAS in requiring robust transfer pricing compliance, transfer pricing adjustments are becoming important considerations for MNCs and international businesses. They can have a significant impact on both the MNC’s financial statements and tax reporting of the businesses, including the imposition of penalties. Proper disclosures on transfer pricing adjustments are crucial to demonstrate arm's length transactions and manage unnecessary queries from IRAS. By following the practical recommendations outlined above and seeking relevant professional guidance or advice, companies will be able to navigate the complexities of transfer pricing compliance, including transfer pricing adjustments, effectively.


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